HomePsychology and Education: A Multidisciplinary Journalvol. 2 no. 2 (2022)

Amidst the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Relationship Between Self Esteem and Depression Among Senior High School Students

Matthew Walet | Joshua Falcatan | Jhoselle Tus

Discipline: Education



With the spread of COVID-19, learning methodology has advanced to the present level of technology, and online learning has increased worldwide. Thus, the Philippines' situation with this learning modality influences mental health disorders, notably self-esteem, which is associated with depression. Moreover, this study investigates the relationship between self-esteem and depression among senior high school students amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. The statistical analysis showed a significant relationship between self-esteem and depression (r=.014).


  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.
  2. Babore, Carmen, Candelori, Paciello, Cerniglia. Depressive Symptoms, Self-Esteem and Perceived Parent–Child Relationship in E a r l y A d o l e s c e n c e V o l u m e - 7 Y e a r - 2 0 1 6 https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00982
  3. Battle, J. (1980). Relationship between Self-Esteem and Depression among High School Students. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 51(1), 157–158. doi:10.2466/pms.1980.51.1.157
  4. Choi,Y., Choi, Soo-Hee, Yun, Je-Yeon, Lim, Jae-A Maa, Kwon, Yoonhee, Lee, Hwa Young BSd; Jang, Joon Hwan MD PhDd, The relationship between levels of self-esteem and the development of depression in young adults with mild depressive symptoms, Medicine: October 2019 - Volume 98 - Issue 42 - p e17518 doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000017518
  5. Farrer L, Gulliver A, Chan JK, Batterham PJ, Reynolds J, Calear A, et al. Technology-based interventions for mental health in tertiary students: systematic review. J Med Internet Res 2013;15(5):e101 [CrossRef] [Medline]
  6. Gacek, M., & Krzywoszanski, L. (2021). Symptoms of anxiety and depression in students with developmental disabilities during COVID-19 lockdown in Poland. Frontiers. Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.576867/full
  7. Jobst, A., Sabass, L., Palagyi, Schmidt, C., Mauer, M. C., Sarubin, N., … & Zill, P. (2015). Effects of social exclusion on emotions and oxytocin and cortisol levels in patients with chronic depression. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 60, 170–177. Medline, Google Scholar
  8. Jan, M., Soomro, S. A., & Ahmad, N. (2017). Impact of Social Media on Self-Esteem. European Scientific Journal, ESJ, 13(23), 329. https://doi.org/10.19044/esj.2017.v13n23p329
  9. Lim, G.Y., Tam, W.W., Lu, Y. et al. Prevalence of Depression in the Community from 30 Countries between 1994 and 2014. Sci Rep 8, 2861 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-21243-x
  10. Malose Makhubela (2019) The relation between low self-esteem and depressive mood in a non-clinical sample: The role of gender and negative life events, Department of Psychology, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa.
  11. Magklara, K., Bellos, S., Niakas, D. et al. Depression in late adolescence: a cross-sectional study in senior high schools in G r e e c e . B M C P s y c h i a t r y 15, 1 99 ( 2 0 1 5 ) . https://doi.org/10.1186/s 12888 -015 -0584 -9
  12. McCombes, S. (2022, May 5). Descriptive research design: Definition, methods & examples. Scribbr. Retrieved May 16, 2022, f r o m https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/descriptive-research/#:~:text=Descriptive%20research%20aims%20to%20accurately,investigate%20one%20or%20more%20variables.
  13. Orth, U., Robins, R. W., Meier, L. L., & Conger, R. D. (2016). Refining the vulnerability model of low self-esteem and depression: Disentangling the effects of genuine self-esteem and narcissism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 110(1), 133–149. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000038
  14. Mittal, Sneha & Singh, Pavitra & Kumar, Sanjay. (2018). Selfesteem, Depression and Resilience amongst University Students: A Comparative Study. 52. 108-114.
  15. Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed. (2016). Introduction to the Psychology of self-esteem.
  16. Henriksen IO, Ranoyen I, Indredavik MS, Stenseng F. The role of self-esteem in the development of psychiatric problems: a three-year prospective study in a clinical sample of adolescents. Child Adolesc P s y c h i a t r y M e n t H e a l t h . 2 0 1 7 ; 1 1 : 6 8 . doi:10.1186/s 13034 -017 -0207 – y
  17. Park K, Yang TC. The long-term effects of self-esteem on depression: the roles of alcohol and substance uses during young a d u l t h o o d . S o c i o l Q. 2 0 1 7 ; 5 8 ( 3 ) : 4 2 9 - 4 4 6 . doi:10.1080/00380253.2017.1331718 P. Albert, Department of Neuroscience, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, 451 Smyth Rd, Ottawa ON K1H 8M5; palbert@uottawa.ca
  18. Salvador R, Torre N, Peña M, Davids AI. Academic and emotional effects of online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic on enginee ring students. Educ Inf Technol (Dordr). 2021;26(6):7407-7434. doi: 10.1007/s10639-021-10593-1. Epub 2021 Jun 5. PMID: 34108843; PMCID: PMC8179070.
  19. Tus J. (2021). Amidst the Online Learning in the Philippines: The Parental Involvement and Its Relationship to the Student's Academic Performance. 10.6084/m9.figshare.14776347.v1.
  20. Tus, J., Espiritu, N., Paras, N., Bartolome, R., Escoto, M.R., Deluna, A., Agustin,J., Gado, S., Ayapana, M., & Mohamitano, A. (2021). Amidst the Online Learning: The Personality Traits and its Relationship to the Self-Esteem of Filipino Tertiary Students. International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 11. 35-42. 10.6084/m9.figshare.17209430.v1.
  21. Tus, J. (2020). Self – Concept, Self – Esteem, Self – Efficacy and Academic Performance of the Senior High School Students. International Journal of Research Culture Society, 4(10). https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.13174991.v1
  22. Skorek, M., Song, A. V., & Dunham, Y. (2014). Self-esteem as a mediator between personality traits and body esteem: path analyses across gender and race/ethnicity. PloS one, 9(11), e112086. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112086
  23. Boateng, John Kwame; Tutu, Raymond A.; Boateng, Joyce, Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Education, v10 spec iss p96-124 2021
  24. Makhubela, M. (2019). The relation between low self-esteem and depressive mood in a nonclinical sample : the role of gender and negative life events (2019) http://hdl.handle.net/10210/405840 uj:34096
  25. Yamasaki, K., Uchida, K., Yokoshima, T., & Kaya, I. (2017). Reconstruction of the Conceptualization of Self-Esteem and Methods for Measurement: Renovating Self-Esteem Research. International journal of psychology and behavioral sciences, 7, 135- 141.
  26. Nesi, J., Choukas-Bradley, S., & Prinstein, M. J. (2018). Transformation of Adolescent Peer Relations in the Social Media Context: Part 2-Application to Peer Group Processes and Future Directions for Research. Clinical child and family psychology review, 21(3), 295–319. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-018-0262-9
  27. Cathy, Kokoszka, Andrzej & Pacura, Agata & Kostecka, Barbara & Lloyd & Sartorius, Norman. (2022). Body self-esteem is related to subjective well-being, severity of depressive symptoms, BMI, glycated hemoglobin levels, and diabetes-related distress in type 2 diabetes. PloS one. 17. e0263766. 10.1371/journal.pone.0263766.
  28. Katelyn M. Cooper, Logan E. Gin, M. Elizabeth Barnes, and Sara E. Brownell An Exploratory Study of Students with Depression in Undergraduate Research Experiences CBE—Life Sciences Education 2020 19:2
  29. Zhou, J., Li, X., Tian, L., & Huebner, E. S. (2018). Longitudinal Association between low self‐esteem and depression in early adolescents: The role of rejection sensitivity and loneliness. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 93(1), 54–71. https://doi.org/10.1111/papt.12207