HomePsychology and Education: A Multidisciplinary Journalvol. 2 no. 1 (2022)

The Self-Esteem and Its Relationship to the College Students’ Perceived Loneliness Amidst the COVID-19 Pandemic

Edelaine Lopez | Micah Villegas | Angeline Suliao | Jhoselle Tus

Discipline: Education



Over the past few years, all schools were closed down, and learning modalities were shifted online due to COVID-19. The sudden transition of learning subsequently affects how students interact, resulting in difficulty in accepting themselves, which can be aligned to the discontinuous enhancement of self-esteem. This kind of situation consequently results in students stopping their inner growth which is essential for managing emotions such as loneliness. This study investigates the significant relationship between self-esteem and loneliness perceived by college students. The statistical analysis demonstrates a significant relationship between self-esteem and loneliness (r= .131).


  1. Ahmad, I.F., Zeb, A., Ullah, S., & Ali, A.B. (2012). Relationship between Self-Esteem and Academic Achievements of Students : A Case of Government Secondary Schools in District Swabi , KPK , Pakistan.
  2. Andrés Losada-Baltar, PhD, Lucía Jiménez-Gonzalo, MA, Laura Gallego-Alberto, PhD, María del Sequeros Pedroso-Chaparro, MA, José Fernandes-Pires, MA, María Márquez-González, PhD, “We Are Staying at Home.” Association of Self-perceptions of Aging, Personal and Family Resources, and Loneliness With Psychological Distress During the Lock-Down Period of COVID-19, The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, Volume 76, Issue 2, February 2021, Pages e10–e16, https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbaa048
  3. Barreto, M., Victor, C., Hammond, C., Eccles, A., Richins, M. T., & Qualter, P. (2021). Loneliness around the world: Age, gender, and cultural differences in loneliness. Personality and Individual Differences, 169, 110066.
  4. Bold, M. (2001). Retrieved April 9, 2003, from University of North Texas Center for Parent Education Website: http://www.unt.edu/cpe/module3blk2survey2.htm.
  5. Branden, N. (2021). The power of self-esteem. Health Communications, Inc..
  6. Brooke, J., & Jackson, D. (2020). Older people and COVID-19 isolation, risk and ageism. Journal of clinical nursing.
  7. Bu, F., Steptoe, A., & Fancourt, D. (2020). Who is lonely in lockdown? Cross-cohort analyses of predictors of loneliness before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Public Health, 186, 31-34.Cacioppo, J. T., Hawkley, L. C., & Thisted, R. A. (2010). Perceived social isolation makes me sad: 5-year cross-lagged analyses of loneliness and depressive symptomatology in the Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study. Psychology and aging, 25(2), 453
  8. Cooper, D. R. & Schindler, P. S. (2001). Business research methods. New York: McGrew-Hill Companies.
  9. Child, S. T., & Lawton, L. (2019). Loneliness and social isolation among young and late middle-age adults: Associations with personal networks and social participation. Aging & mental health, 23(2), 196-204.
  10. Dossey, L. (2020). Loneliness and health. Explore (New York, NY), 16(2), 75-78
  11. Dianzto, A.J., Espinosa, J., Duran, J., & Tus, J. (2021). A Glimpse into the Lived Experiences and Challenges Faced of PWD Students towards Online Learning in the Philippines Amidst COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal Of Advance Research And Innovative Ideas In Education . 7(1) DOI:10.6084/m9.figshare.14033435.v1.
  12. Du, H., Li, X., Chi, P., Zhao, S., & Zhao, J. (2019). Loneliness and self‐esteem in children and adolescents affected by parental HIV: A 3‐Year Longitudinal Study. Applied Psychology: Health and Well‐Being, 11(1), 3-19
  13. Fang, L. (2016). Educational aspirations of Chinese migrant children: The role of self-esteem, contextual and individual influences. Learning and Individual Differences, 50, 195-202.
  14. Fried, L., Prohaska, T., Burholt, V., Burns, A., Golden, J., Hawkley, L., ... & Victor, C. (2020). A unified approach to loneliness. The Lancet, 395(10218), 114-114.
  15. Galea, S., Merchant, R. M., & Lurie, N. (2020). The mental health consequences of COVID-19 and physical distancing. JAMA Internal Medicine, 28(8), 666–675. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.
  16. Groarke, J. M., Berry, E., Graham-Wisener, L., McKenna-Plumley, P. E., McGlinchey, E., & Armour, C. (2020). Loneliness in the UK during the COVID-19 pandemic: Cross-sectional results from the COVID-19 Psychological Wellbeing Study. PloS one, 15(9), e0239698.
  17. Ibrahim, H. S., Mohammed, S. M., & Abd-Alla, E. S. (2017). Relationship between Loneliness and Self-esteem among Nursing College Students at Zagazig University. Zagazig Nursing Journal, 13(2), 207-220.
  18. Ishaq, G., Solomon, V., & Khan, O. (2017). Relationship between self-esteem and loneliness among university students living in hostels. International Journal of Research Studies in Psychology, 6(2), 21-27.
  19. Kargin, M., Aytop, S., Hazar, S., & Yüksekol, Ö. D. (2021). The relationship between gender role stress and self-esteem in students of faculty of health sciences. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 57(1), 363-370.
  20. Kyung-Sook, K., & Hye-gyeong, C. (2018). Factors influencing loneliness among college students in Korea. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 11(4), 1475-1479.
  21. Labrague, L. J., De los Santos, J. A. A., & Falguera, C. (2021). Social and emotional loneliness among college students during the COVID-19 pandemic: the predictive role of coping behaviours, social support, and personal resilience.
  22. Leedy, P. & Ormrod, J. (2001). Practical research: Planning and design(7th ed.).Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall
  23. Lim, M. H., Eres, R., & Vasan, S. (2020). Understanding loneliness in the twenty-first century: an update on correlates, risk factors, and potential solutions. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 55(7), 793-810.
  24. Lim, M. H., Rodebaugh, T. L., Zyphur, M. J., & Gleeson, J. F. (2016). Loneliness over time: The crucial role of social anxiety. Journal of abnormal psychology, 125(5), 620.
  25. Lin, H. C., & Chen, C. C. (2021). Disease prevention behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic and the role of self-esteem: an extended parallel process model. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 14, 123
  26. Maes, M., Qualter, P., Vanhalst, J., Van den Noortgate, W., & Goossens, L. (2019). Gender Differences in Loneliness across the Lifespan: A Meta–Analysis. European Journal of Personality, 33(6), 642–654. https://doi.org/10.1002/per.2220
  27. McKay, M., & Fanning, P. (2016). Self-esteem: A proven program of cognitive techniques for assessing, improving, and maintaining your self-esteem. New Harbinger Publications.
  28. Minev, M., Petrova, B., Mineva, K., Petkova, M., & Strebkova, R. (2018). Self-esteem in adolescents. Trakia Journal of Sciences, 16(2), 114-118.
  29. Mo, P. K., Chan, V. W., Wang, X., & Lau, J. T. (2020). Gender difference in the association between internet addiction, self-esteem and academic aspirations among adolescents: A structural equation modelling. Computers & Education, 155, 103921.
  30. Najafi, M., Salehin, M., & Mohamadyfar, M. (2016). The effect of self esteem, humorous styles and shyness on the feeling of loneliness in students. The Journal of New Thoughts on Education, 12(3), 59-77.
  31. Orth, U., & Robins, R. W. (2014). The development of self-esteem. Current directions in psychological science, 23(5), 381-387.
  32. OaksCreswell, J. (2002). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research.Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.
  33. Peplau, L. A. (2022). Loneliness. In Social Problems and Mental Health (pp. 93-95). Routledge.
  34. Perante, L., Solmiano, E.M., Lunesto, J.P., Malicdem, J., Malaca, J.M., & Tus, J. (2021). Mag-Aral ay Di ‘Biro: A Phenomenological Study on the Lived Experiences of the Students on Blended Learning Amidst COVID-19. International Journal Of Advance Research And Innovative Ideas In Education. 7(1). DOI:10.6084/m9.figshare.13717864.v1.
  35. Pyszczynski, T., Greenberg, J., Solomon, S., Arndt, J., & Schimel, J. (2004). Why do people need self-esteem? A theoretical and empirical review. Psychological bulletin, 130(3), 435.
  36. Rosenberg, M., Schooler, C., Schoenbach, C., & Rosenberg, F. (1995). Global self-esteem and specific self-esteem: Different concepts, different outcomes. American sociological review, 141-156
  37. Thakkar, D., Haria, N., & Kumar, V. (2016). A study on the relationship between attachment styles, self esteem and loneliness amongst adolescents. Indian Journal of Mental Health, 3(2).
  38. Tus, J. (2020). Self – Concept, Self – Esteem, Self – Efficacy and Academic Performance of the Senior High School Students. International Journal of Research Culture Society, 4(10). https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.13174991.v1
  39. Vanhalst, J., Luyckx, K., Scholte, R. H., Engels, R. C., & Goossens, L. (2013). Low self-esteem as a risk factor for loneliness in adolescence: Perceived-but not actual-social acceptance as an underlying mechanism. Journal of abnormal child psychology, 41(7), 1067-1081.
  40. Vakoufari, M., Christina, A., & Mavroidis, I. (2014). Self-esteem and loneliness as factors affecting distance learning students. European Journal of Open, Distance and e-learning, 17(2), 100-116.
  41. Vaterlaus, J. M. (2022). College Student Loneliness and the Reopening of Campuses During the COVID‐19 Pandemic. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal.
  42. Yapo, F., Dagami, J. P. T. A. T., Navales, K. J., & Tus, J. (2021). The Self-Efficacy and Academic Motivation of the Graduating College Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic in the Philippines. International Journal Of Advance Research And Innovative Ideas In Education.
  43. Zheng, J. (2020). SARS-CoV-2: an emerging coronavirus that causes a global threat. International journal of biological sciences, 16(10), 1678.