HomePhilippine Journal of Psychologyvol. 46 no. 2 (2013)

Further Validation of the Genderism and Transphobia Scale in the Philippines

Raymond A. Macapagal

Discipline: Psychology



 The Genderism and Transphobia Scale (GTS) (Hill & Willoughby, 2005) measures negativity toward gender nonconformity. Previous work using a Philippine sample by Willoughby and colleagues (2011) established its reliability and initial validity anchored on gender and sexuality differences. The current study builds on this research by investigating the scale's construct validity through (a) associations with homonegativity and homopositivity and (b) a measure of intergroup contact with trans people. One hundred eighty seven Filipino university students answered the GTS, the Homonegativity Scale (HNS) (Morrison, Parriag, & Morrison, 1999), and the Homopositivity Scale (HPS) (Morrison & Bearden, 2007), and reported the number of transpeople in their friendship network. Results showed that participants with more transnegative attitudes had higher homonegativity and lower homopositivity. Furthermore, number of transgender friends was correlated with attitudes toward transgenderism but not attitudes toward homosexuality. Finally, as known in the literature, birth-assigned males were more transnegative than birth-assigned females.