One lesser-known indigenous group of people in the northern Philippines that had already been Christianized is the Tingguian or Itneg of Abra. This group's cultural practices are believed to have existed for hundred of years even before the Spaniards colonized the Philippines. Their native practices nowadays may still be considered paganistic by many but have somehow been interpreted with a Christian tone. The native practices may not have been totally ignored or changed, but surely they have been given Christian symbols and meaning. Symbols and meaning have been effective expressions of the people's beliefs and values that have been translated into rituals, dances, songs, and other tribal practices.