Mary Jane G. Barluado | Renan P. Limjuco | Babes Mariel Cedeño
The Hardy-Weinberg Principle (HWP) is used to determine the passing of genetic traits through generations in big, random-mating populations that are not affected by the evolutionary processes of mutation, migration, or selection. It is based on the knowledge of the traits’ allelic genotypes. This study examined the transmission of four phenotypic traits (including upright thumb, widow’s peak hairline, free earlobe, and tongue folding) for three direct-line generations of 105 families in separate populations in Davao City, by Pedigree Analysis; and assessed the conformance to HWP of the four phenotypic traits, hence the applicability of HWP to predicting phenotypic frequency without the need to determine the traits’ genotypes (or gene alleles). Quantitative descriptive design was employed to evaluate the surveyed data gathered using validated researcher-designed questionnaire. The overall observed frequencies of the phenotypic traits were determined, from which the expected frequencies were calculated, then analyzed for their “goodness of fit” using Chi-square statistical test. Overall, the results of the study show a) consistency of inherited phenotypic traits among the family respondents; b) non-conformance to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium of the surveyed phenotypes, except for the hairline shape, as revealed by the Chi-square test, and c) that HWP may not be applied using only the phenotypic data, as they are not just results of genotypic expression but also of environmental influences.