HomeLEAPS: Miriam College Faculty Research Journalvol. 33 no. 1 (2010)

Manifest Needs of Adolescents and their Level of Happiness

Ruth Quintillan-bugas

Discipline: Family and Relationships, Social Studies



The combined effect of family status and perception of family's level of happiness on student's manifest need was investigated by multivariate analysis. A total of 659 second year high school students across four school years participated in the study. Of which, 62 were with migrant parents and 597 were with non-migrant parents. The manifest needs were culled from the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS) while the self-rated levels of happiness were gathered from the students' Individual Inventory Form. Students with low consistency percentile score (49 below) were excluded because they responded to the questionnaire unreliably. The independent variables were the status of parents classified as migrant and non-migrant, and self-rated perception on family's level of happiness categorized as very happy, happy, and happy with some problems. The dependent variables were their scores on the EPPS. The joint effect of family status and perceptions of family's level of happiness influence manifest needs for autonomy and aggression.