HomeThe Asia-Pacific Education Researchervol. 20 no. 3 (2011)

Exploring the Factor Structure of the Constructs of Technological, Pedagogical, Content Knowledge (TPACK)

Ching Sing Chai | Chin-chung Tsai | Joyce Hwee Ling Koh

Discipline: Education



In recent years, several survey instruments have been designed to measure the technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) of teachers. Even though the TPACK framework was conceptualized as having seven constructs, researchers have only successfully validated the constructs of technological knowledge (TK) and content knowledge (CK). Constructs such as pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), technological content knowledge (TCK), technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK), and TPACK have been found to be difficult to differentiate via factor analysis. This study explored how the contextualization of items in a TPACK to the constructivist-oriented use of ICT for self-directed and collaborative learning improved its construct validity. This survey was administered on 214 Singaporean pre-service teachers. Such an approach for designing this TPACK survey led to the successful identification of the seven theorized constructs through factor analysis. The implications on these findings on the design of TPACK surveys are discussed.